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Nail training – Nail Disorders

The shape of a healthy nail is different from person to person, it mainly depends on the form of the fingertip. The normal nail has a slight, hardly noticeable transversal curve lengthwise, it is convex on both sides and, in technical terms, forms a so-called „C- shape”.

fingernailhealthThe so-called congenital nail deformities:

  • nails curving downwards –„hawk-shaped” nails,
  • nails curving upwards – „spoon- shaped”,
  • nails without curve – flat nail,
  • grooved nail – this is not always congenital,
  • watch-glass nail (very convex, roundish, its form resembles the old watch-glasses).

These, within certain limits, are not pathological deformities, just figural deviations.

Acquired nail deformities can be permanent (when the matrix is injured) and partial (when the failure regrows):

  • Nail Atrophy, waste away of the nail
    Can be caused by:
    – strong soap,
    – chemical agents,
    – infection of the proximal skin fold.
    It is often mistaken for nail fungus.
  • Blue Nails
    Their blood supply is inadequate, that is the reason why they become blue and require medical treatment.
  • Bloodshot nails
    Due to a blood clot a black or blue stain appear beneath the nail within the nail bed. Treatment: leave it to regrow.
  • Grooved nail
    Bumpy hollows or ridges running on the nail lengthwise. It may be originated from the injury of cells that are situated near the nail root or from too much pressure when the cuticle is pushed up. We can work on such nails by polishing the nail surface gently depending on how deep the ridges are. Smaller injury can also cause lengthwise grooves. The groove can be unsealed causing pain and if dirt gets into it infection may occur. If we notice a bulge or inflammation we should immediately go to the doctor. Keep the nails clean and cut the loose hanging parts off. If the ridges are not deep we can smooth them away by polishing them regularly or appyling base coat (if we use it even under nail polish).
  • Eggshell nails
    They are typically soft, thin, white and curved over the free edge. We should handle them with care as they are weak and very thin nails.
    It can be caused by:
    – illness,
    – diet,
    – nervous disorder.
  • Ingrown nails
    The nail grows into the nail wall. It can result from improper trimming or filing which affect the nail wall too deep. Proper manicure generally eliminates the problem, however, in extreme cases medical treatment is required.
  • Overgrowth of the cuticle
    This disorder appears when, together with nail growth, the cuticle also grows forward over the nail plate. Treatment: applying cuticle oil. There is a cuticle smoothing liquid that smooths the cuticle making it possible to be pushed back. The excess cuticle can be then nipped or rubbed off.